gluten free grains
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Gluten in grains. It is fairly straightforward right? By now we understand which grains contain gluten, which are gluten-free, and which are not even grains at all. Yet it turns out that it is not that simple, and that things are never quite what they seem.
In this article we delve deeper into the subject of gluten in grains and consider why, for many, going completely grain-free may be the answer.
The gluten-free gold standard
Once was a time when gluten-free wasn’t actually a thing for most of us. Unless blighted by coeliac disease or a severe allergy to wheat, we could quite happily have our cake and eat it.
For those who suffered from the consequences of eating wheat and associated glutens, it was necessary to follow a gluten-free diet. Which back in the day was a lot less complicated. Gluten-free alternatives were available, yet nowhere near as widespread as they are today.
The market for gluten-free foods (as oppose to naturally gluten-free produce) came about in response to greater demand from the coeliac community. The entire body of gluten-free literature and law was defined by the specifics of coeliac disease. Which is great. When it comes to the question of allergens, people need to understand the severity of such a disease.
What triggers coeliac disease?
It is widely accepted that a coeliac reaction is triggered by the gluten proteins in the Triticeae family of grains; wheat, barley and rye. Specifically, the storage proteins known as prolamines, and glutelins. The chemistry is complex, as chemistry tends to be, but it also involves levels of particular amino acids, including glutamine and proline.
The point here is that in many (most) countries the measurements that allow foods to be labelled as gluten-free are based upon these specific proteins, in accordance with the lowest levels that may trigger a coeliac response. So far, so good.
Gluten in grains
But here’s the thing. There is gluten in ALL grains. Part of the unique genetic make-up that defines a true cereal grain is the presence of prolamines. Those gluten storage proteins which help the seed to sprout.
In wheat, it is gliadin. In barley, it is hordein. In rye, it is secalin. In oats, it is avenin. In rice, it is orzenin. In maize, it is zein. And in sorghum, it is kaferin.
In theory, although the jury is still out on oats, other than the proteins in wheat, barley, and rye, none of these trigger a reaction in those with coeliac disease. Which is why rice, oats, maize, and sorghum, are all designated gluten-free. EVEN THOUGH they do actually all contain gluten proteins.
Can the gluten in all grains cause a reaction?
It must first be said that there are many good things about grains. We have no intention of vilifying any food and if you are considering eliminating any foods from your diet then it should be with good reason. Nutrition is rarely straightforward and there are times when the benefits can outweigh the risks. Careful consideration is key.
But yes, the gluten in all grains has the potential to cause a reaction. Each type is different, just as we are all different. Rice, for instance is considered to be the most benign grain of all. Yet some people do have an inflammatory reaction. Corn, alongside rice, finds its way into most gluten-free alternative foods such as pasta or bread, yet has a high protein content that has been shown to trigger sensitivities in a huge number of people.
It is now understood that what may be safe for many coeliacs, can indeed trigger a response in those with a gluten allergy, or sensitivity. And that the reasons that people seek out information, or gluten-free products, may not necessarily be confined to our current definitions and understanding.
This article was reproduced on this site with permission from operafoods.com.au the “Gluten Free Cereals Manufacturer”.
See original article:- Gluten in Grains. Could Grain-Free be the Answer for Many?
Gluten is the name given to a family of proteins found in grains. These grains each contain different gluten proteins; known structurally as prolamins. It is these prolamins, and their particular composition, that can trigger the allergic response or sensitivity associated with gluten.
Does grain free mean gluten free?
But if gluten comes from grains, surely it follows that eliminating grains from your diet automatically means it is gluten free. Unfortunately it is not that simple.
For a start, not all grains contain gluten. There are many choices when it comes to gluten free grains.
Gluten contamination – hidden gluten
But wheat is everywhere. It can be processed in the same place as your gluten free grains. In which case, cross contamination may occur. For the coeliac, the merest trace of gluten is enough to trigger a painful reaction. If your gluten free product does not state that has been certified gluten free, then there is every chance it has come into contact with gluten at some stage of its journey.
Wheat may be an unexpected ingredient. Just because you would not expect a product to have wheat in its ingredients does not mean it has been made without wheat. So always check the label.
Then there are wheat derivatives, or wheat that has cross contaminated the ingredients of the ingredients. Sometimes the gluten won’t even be on the label.
A product that is certified gluten free will have been tested for gluten levels within the product and passed a certain benchmark. If it isn’t labelled gluten-free then there is every chance that gluten lurks somewhere.
Are oats gluten free?
And then there are oats. A point of confusion if ever there was one. Here’s the thing: oats have a very low level of gluten content, but are NOT technically Gluten Free. So in Australia oats cannot be marketed as gluten free. Strangely, in Europe, and in the USA, oats can be labelled as gluten free if they have not been cross contaminated by any traces of wheat or other potential sources of gluten.
But oats do contain prolamins. They are generally considered to be safe for those with gluten intolerance, but they are there and oats are NOT safe for coeliacs . You can find out more about the oat gluten avenin in our article ‘Gluten Free Oats Dont Exist’.
Which grains are gluten free?
When it comes to gluten-free grains there are many options. As standalone ingredients they provide great gluten free alternatives, yet rising demand has made gluten free products far more widely available. This means that you may find these grains listed on ingredients labels and it is always helpful to be able to identify them.
Is rice gluten free?
Yes, rice is gluten free. Brown rice is more nutritionally dense than white rice, yet white rice is important staple food that provides a cheap source of carbohydrate and protein. The husk of brown rice contains essential fatty acids that can help lower cholesterol, as well as fibre. Brown rice is a rich source of minerals, including magnesium which has been shown to help regulate blood sugar levels. Don’t forget other types of rice such as wild rice and red rice. They are both gluten free, and have impressive nutritional credentials.
Is quinoa gluten free?
Yes, quinoa is gluten free. Quinoa is not strictly a cereal grain, yet we group it amongst grains nonetheless. Regarded as a bit of a superfood, quinoa is not only packed with protein but contains all the essential amino acids, which is not unheard of but quite rare in the plant world. A great source of heart healthy omega-3 which is known to reduce LDL cholesterol, quinoa is also abundant in vitamin E and other antioxidant compounds. There are two types of quinoa; red and white. Red quinoa is a good source of anthocyanins, the antioxidant pigments that give red colour to plants.
Is buckwheat gluten free?
Yes, buckwheat is gluten free. Another grain that is not a true cereal, buckwheat (like rice) is is great for blood sugar control. A source of slow release carbohydrates, it also contains the duo of magnesium and manganese that regulate blood sugar levels. Buckwheat is also a rich source of fibre as well as essential amino acids. Another heart healthy gluten free grain, it is full of antioxidant phytonutrients. To prepare buckwheat, boil it like rice. It can also be sprouted and eaten raw.
Is maize gluten free?
Yes, maize is gluten free. Maize, also known as corn or sweetcorn, is actually a true cereal. Because we eat it in its fresh form, it is easy to think of it as a vegetable, but it is one of the world’s most abundant cereal grains. A gluten-free grain at that. In terms of the gluten question, think cornflour (and its variation masa harina) and corn flakes. Traditional stoneground masa harina, as oppose to the white powder we thicken gravy with, retains its rich nutrient content; including many B vitamins. Fresh sweetcorn contains soluble fibre that helps regulate blood sugar and also carotenoids that support eye health. And of course; popcorn.
Is millet gluten free?
Yes, millet is gluten free. Millet is a true cereal grain. A globally important food source, and not just for budgies, it is said to be one of the most easily digestible and least allergenic grains available. Rich in minerals and vitamins, high in protein, and a great source of fibre, millet may just be one of the most overlooked gluten free grains there is. It also contains tryptophan, the amino acid found in turkey and lettuce that helps promote restful sleep. Millet is sold as grains that can be soaked or roasted before boiling, and also as a flour. It can be sprouted for eating raw. And like many grains it can be popped or puffed.
Is sorghum gluten free?
Yes, sorghum is gluten free. Sorghum belongs to the same family as the millets, and is sometimes used (and even sold) interchangeably. It shares a nutritional profile with millet.
So, what grains do have gluten in them?
The gluten containing grains have all been part of the breadmaking repertoire for centuries. Barley and rye were being used long before it was discovered that wheat had particular properties that made it the ideal grain for baking. And THE staple food. It was advances in farming, processing, and manufacturing, that eventually rendered it unrecognisable, as well as possibly the most widely used commodity on Earth.
Is barley gluten free?
Barley does contain gluten proteins, known as hordeins. Barley is still unsuitable for those with gluten issues yet is considered to be far lower in gluten than wheat. It has a number of nutritional benefits, beyond a high fibre content, and is thought to support healthy gut bacteria. Some of the fibre content of barley is soluble, so it helps to maintain steady blood sugar levels and lower LDL cholesterol. Barley can be used as other grains, but is particularly beneficial when sprouted. Barleygrass is full of green goodness and antioxidants.
Is rye gluten free?
Rye also contains gluten, with prolamins known as secalins. Like barley it is not suitable for those with gluten issues, but does have lower levels of gluten than wheat. Rye is particularly good at controlling blood sugar levels and regulating the appetite. A nutrient dense, albeit gluten containing grain, rye has high levels of minerals, vitamins and antioxidant compounds.
Strictly speaking, most grains are ancient as they have been around since man first started cultivating crops. Many of the grains we now see as commonplace but until a few years ago were largely unheard of have been part of traditional diets for thousands of years.
But it is our mistrust of modern wheat that led us to seek out alternative grains. Even rye and barley, which both contain gluten, have seen an upsurge in popularity. Many believe that the huge rise in gluten intolerance can be attributed to the protein content of modern mass produced wheat. And it is this that has placed grains such as sorghum and buckwheat so firmly on the mainstream table.
Yet when we talk about ancient grains, what we are generally referring to is particular types of wheat. The wheat that we now cultivate bears little resemblance to the wheat that we once grew. Our efforts to increase yield and provide resistant crops have resulted in a plant that has a very different DNA to earlier strains of wheat. Modern wheat is shown to have far more gluten proteins in its genetic structure, and many feel that this is causing the rise of gluten sensitivity.
Ancient forms of wheat do contain gluten, yet the molecular structure is different to that of modern wheat.
Is spelt gluten free?
Spelt does contain gluten. An ancient variety of wheat, spelt is more robust and harder to refine than wheat. It contains more soluble fibre than modern wheat and is efficient at controlling blood sugar and lowering LDL cholesterol levels. Spelt has more protein than standard wheat and is a rich source of B vitamins and minerals. The grains can be cooked like rice and other wholegrains, and is readily available as flour. Even with its gluten content, spelt is more easily digestible than modern wheat.
Explore our full range of gluten free products, available to buy in bulk online.
This article was reproduced on this site with permission from operafoods.com.au the “Healthy Cereal Bulk Wholesalers”.
See original article:- Gluten Free Grains Guide
Are oats suitable for those on a gluten-free diet?
Most of us, at some point or another, have been told that oats are a gluten-free grain but, as they are often processed with grains that contain gluten, they cannot be considered suitable for a gluten-free diet. But that is not the whole story.
Before asking if oats are gluten-free, we first need to take a closer look at gluten…
What is gluten?
Gluten is the collective name we give to two types of protein that are found in wheat and other grains. These are prolamins and glutelins. Together, these proteins form a glue-like substance when flour and water are mixed.
It is the prolamins within the gluten that are most likely to cause sensitivity. The most common ones are gliadins in wheat, secalins in rye, and hordeins in barley. Oats also contain a prolamin protein. It is called avenin.
The structure of gluten varies amongst grains. It is why bread made with wheat flour is different to bread made only with rye, or barley. The structure of the prolamins also varies. This explains why some people may find wheat more inflammatory than other grains that contain gluten.
Are oats gluten-free?
So, do oats contain gluten? Strictly speaking, as they contain both glutelins and prolamins, yes they do. But the portion of the proteins that can cause allergy or sensitivity is far less than in wheat or other gluten containing grains, and their composition is somewhat different.
Are oats suitable for a gluten-free diet?
Avenin may, but not necessarily, cause a reaction in those with gluten intolerance or coeliac disease. If you do experience sensitivity to oats it may be specific to avenin, it may be triggered by contamination from other grains, or it may be both.
Cross contamination of gluten proteins can occur when oats are grown, transported, or processed, with other gluten containing grains. Oats that are labelled gluten-free have been tested and are certified free of gluten contamination. The tests however only measure for gliadin, secalin, or hordein. They do not include avenin. Here in Australia there is no gluten-free labelling for oats but they can be packaged as certified wheat-free.
Oats are an excellent source of nutrition and should not be dismissed lightly. An intolerance to avenin alone is not particularly common, so most people are fine with certified wheat-free oats.
What grains are gluten-free?
Although not all true grains, sorghum, quinoa, buckwheat, amaranth, teff, corn and rice are all gluten-free.
Because of our strict labelling laws, if you buy gluten-free granola in Australia it should not contain oats. Oats is not technically gluten free and products sold as gluten free oats in Australia are breaking the law. (Oats, which is very low in gluten, is allowed to be sold as “Gluten Free” in the USA for example, but that does not help Coeliacs.)
That doesn’t make it any less delicious though. A lot of gluten-free granola is made with puffed grains such as rice or buckwheat, and crunchy nuggets of quinoa.
Should you Eat Gluten Free Products.
For most people the answer is a definite no. “The reality is, for most people, there is no benefit to gluten free products and in fact it may be to their detriment. Health professionals don’t like people to consume gluten-free product unless it is necessary. Because 98 percent of people simply don’t have gluten issues.” [from an article by Opera Foods 2017. “Misconceptions about Gluten Free Products“]
Whole grains, including the gluten grains wheat, barley rye and especially oats are loaded with nutrition and fibre and are health promoting. They are linked to reduced risk of: cancer, diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, and other chronic diseases. The fact is, a gluten free diet could be harmful.
Grain-free breakfast cereal
There are times when you want go further than gluten-free and need a grain-free breakfast cereal. Also you probably want a low sugar cereal breakfast. It isn’t easy to satisfy the sweet, milky, crispy crunch that only cereal and milk can give but the right combo of fruit, nuts and seeds can hit the spot.
So, although oats may be off the menu for some of us, there are still plenty of options when it comes to gluten-free granola or even grain-free cereal.
Check out our article on ‘what is a healthy breakfast‘ and find out why wholegrain cereal is the heart of a healthy breakfast.